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Spell 700 book of the dead

spell 700 book of the dead

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Spell 700 book of the dead -

Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile. In Belgium, Egyptology emerged later than elsewhere in Europe, but once under steam, it went through a rapid growth in the course of the first half of the 20th century. Yet no note to. Problems in Historical Methodology. Egyptology which causes such concern. Leider konnte sich die Autorin nicht dazu ent-.

The ancient Egyptian religion was not exclusive and allowed for unlimited gods. Instead, they allowed for multiple limited insights that are each considered valid in the proper context and approach.

Rather, it evolved around how people interacted with their gods. The ancient Egyptians practiced a belief system that was part totemism, part polytheism, and part ancestor worship.

Cults were focused on netjer ntr , which has been translated as meaning god. However, the ancient Egyptians applied this term to people and objects, which today we would hesitate to call gods.

There was the physical form and eight immortal or semi-divine parts that survived death. Each of these nine parts survived after death and required provisions and protection in the afterlife.

Each required sustenance and shelter if the deceased should not die a second time. These nine parts consisted of:.

It is for this reason that the deceased is at one and the same time in heaven with the circumpolar stars , in the celestial barque of the Sun God Re, under the earth, tilling the Elysian Fields, and in his tomb enjoying his victuals.

Just as there is a multiplicity of parts of the being of man, so there are many types of existence in the afterlife. Some represent philosophies of ancient times that instead of being forgotten are incorporated with current beliefs creating seemingly contradictory expectations of the afterlife.

The funerary literature aimed to address all these different beliefs so that the deceased might survive and be resurrected in the afterlife.

Here the deceased joins the gods and becomes part of the cosmic cycle of the universe in the form of the imperishable stars, the circumpolar stars.

Spell for opening the tomb]. Here the deceased joins with the cosmic cycle of the sun, sailing in the solar barque of the Sun God and taking his place as a divine being.

Spells 67, , , , , , b illustrate the concept of a solar afterlife in the barque of Re. In Spell 67 the deceased takes his place on the solar barque of the Sun God and the actions made to make his soul worthy of joining Re.

The rubric of the spell describes how it should be performed. In the Middle Kingdom the sun god no longer rules supreme; Osiris becomes the king with whom the blessed dead hope to spend eternity.

This new importance of Osiris in the afterlife can be see in his assumption of the role of judge of the dead. Spell of the Book of the Dead deals entirely with the judgement of the dead, by which it was ascertained whether the deceased was worthy to enter the Kingdom of Osiris.

Spell deals with the description of the Field of Rushes or Reeds as a paradise for the blessed dead in the afterlife.

Here the deceased receives offerings of bread and beer, oxen and all good things, clothing and daily incense.

The deceased was expected to plough, reap, to eat and drink, maintenance of irrigation works, and all the things that were done in life for all eternity.

Vignettes accompanying this spell show the deceased sailing in a boat laden with offerings, reaping wheat and driving oxen or ploughing the land.

At this time the shabiti formulas appear, to relieve the dead from all the hard work in the afterlife by providing a magical substitute worker.

The deceased could partake in the offerings brought to the tomb by the ancestors or from the magically activated Tables of Offerings inscribed on the tomb walls and papyrus.

These offerings provided sustenance not only to the Ka but also the Ba and Khaibit. Untold generations lived and died with the belief that those things required in life would also be needed in death.

The tomb provided the house for the physical body, the Ka, the Ba and the Khaibit. It also provided a place to partake in food and drink from offerings placed in the tomb.

The ancient Egyptian name for the Book of the Dead, is per em hru, which have been variously translated as meaning, "coming forth from the day", or " coming forth by day".

The Book of the Dead is a group of funerary chapters, which began to appear in ancient Egypt around BC. In the Middle Kingdom more Spells were added and the texts were written in hieratic, not in hieroglyphics, within the wooden coffins and are known as Coffin Texts.

Eventually in the New Kingdom Spells were written on sheets of papyrus covered with magical texts and accompanying illustrations called vignettes.

In the Old Kingdom of Egypt, only in certain cases and for special emphasis did Spells include a vignette, but by the Ramesside Period, the reverse is true and only a few Spells are un-illustrated.

In Dynasty 21 and in the Late Period, vignettes were often used for the Spells, without the texts. But in many manuscripts the vignettes constitute a row of pictures, with texts placed beneath them.

By the 26th Dynasty the sequence of chapters was standardised into a series of over 'chapters', most with their own vignette.

The texts are divided into individual Spells or chapters, around two hundred in total, though no one papyrus contains them all. Specific chapters could be selected out of the total repertoire.

Do not stand up as a witness against me, do not be opposed to me in the tribunal, do not be hostile to me in the presence of the Keeper of the Balance, for you are my ka which was in my body, the protector who made my members hale.

Go forth to the happy place whereto we speed, do not make my name stink to the Entourage who make men. Do not tell lies about me in the present of the god.

It is indeed well that you should hear! Get back, you dangerous one! Do not come against me, do not live by my magic; may I not have to tell this name of yours to the Great God who sent you; 'Messenger' is the name of one, and Bedty is the name of the other.

The sky encloses the stars, magic encloses its settlements, and my mouth encloses the magic which is in it. My teeth are a knife, my tusks are the Viper Mountain.

Get back, you crocodile of the West! The nau -snake is in my belly, and I have not given myself to you, your flame will not be on me.

My hair is Nu ; my face is Ra ; my eyes are Hathor ; my ears are Wepwawet ; my nose is She who presides over her lotus leaf; my lips are Anubis ; my molars are Selkis ; my incisors are Isis the goddess; my arms are the Ram, the Lord of mendes; my breast is Neith , Lady of Sais; my back is Seth ; my phallus is Osiris ; my muscles are the Lords of Kheraha; my chest is he who is greatly majestic; my belly and my spine are Sekhmet ; my buttocks are the Eye of Horus ; my thighs and my calves are Nut ; my feet are Ptah ; my toes are living falcons; there is no member of mine devoid of a god, and Thoth is the protection of all my flesh.

I have guarded this egg of the Great Cackler. If it grows, I grow; if it lives, I life; if it breathes air, I breathe air.

May I have power in my heart, may I have power in my arms, may I have power in my legs, may I have power in my mouth, may I have power in all my members may I have power over invocation-offerings, may I have power over water Come for my soul, O you wardens of the sky!

If you delay letting my soul see my corpse, you will find the eye of Horus standing up thus against you The sacred barque will be joyful and the great god will proceed in peace when you allow this soul of mine to ascend vindicated to the gods The contract was drawn up in a series of paragraphs in legal phraseology by the priests of Amen, who believed they had the power of making their god do as they pleased when they pleased.

The Ceremony of "Opening of the Mouth" being performed on the mummy of the royal scribe Hunefer at the door of the tomb. From the sarcophagus of Nekhut-Heru-hebt, king of Egypt, B.

Many funerary rolls were written both in hieroglyphs and hieratic, and were decorated with vignettes drawn in black outline; and about this time the scribes began to write funerary texts in the demotic character.

The dead were no longer buried with large rolls of papyrus filled with Chapters of the PER-T EM HRU laid in their coffins, but with small sheets or strips of papyrus, on which were inscribed the above compositions, or the shorter texts of the "Book of Breathings," or the "Book of Traversing Eternity," or the "Book of May my name flourish," or a part of the "Chapter of the Last Judgment.

During the four thousand years of its existence many additions were made to it, but nothing of importance seems to have been taken away from it.

In the space here available it is impossible to describe in detail the various Recensions of this work, viz. No one papyrus can be cited as a final authority, for no payprus contains all the Chapters, in number, of the Theban Recension, and in no two papyri are the selection and sequence of the Chapters identical, or is the treatment of the vignettes the same.

His words were almighty and once uttered never remained without effect. He framed the laws by which heaven, earth and all the heavenly bodies are maintained; he ordered the courses of the sun, moon, and stars; he invented drawing and design and the arts, the letters of the alphabet and the art of writing, and the science of mathematics.

At a very page 15 early period he was called the "scribe or secretary of the Great Company of the Gods," and as he kept the celestial register of the words and deeds of men, he was regarded by many generations of Egyptians as the "Recording Angel.

Osiris owed his triumph over Set in the Great Judgment Hall of the Gods entirely to the skill of Thoth of the "wise mouth" as an Advocate, and to his influence with the gods in heaven.

And every follower of Osiris relied upon the advocacy of Thoth to secure his acquittal on the Day of Judgment, and to procure for him an everlasting habitation in the Kingdom of Osiris.

The Egyptians were not satisfied with the mere possession of the texts of Thoth, when their souls were being weighed in the Great Scales in the Judgment Hall of Osiris, but they also wished Thoth to act as their Advocate on this dread occasion and to prove their innocence as he had proved that of Osiris before the great gods in prehistoric times.

According to a very ancient Egyptian tradition, the god Osiris, who was originally the god of the principle of the fertility of the Nile, became incarnate on earth as the son of Geb, the Earth-god, and Nut, the Sky-goddess.

Geb set Osiris on the throne of Egypt, and his rule was beneficent page 16 and the nation was happy and prosperous. Set marked this and became very jealous of his brother, and wished to slay him so that he might seize his throne and take possession of Isis, whose reputation as a devoted and loving wife and able manager filled the country.

By some means or other Set did contrive to kill Osiris: They then laid the body in a tomb, and a sycamore tree grew round it and flourished over the grave.

A tradition which is found in the Pyramid Texts states that before Osiris was laid in his tomb, his wife Isis, by means of her magical powers, succeeded in restoring him to life temporarily, and made him beget of her an heir, who was called Horus.

After the burial of Osiris, Isis retreated to the marshes in the Delta, and there she brought forth Horus. In order to avoid the persecution of Set, who on one occasion succeeded in killing Horus by the sting of a scorpion, she fled from place to place in the Delta, and lived a very unhappy life for some years.

But Thoth helped her in all her difficulties and provided her with the words of power which restored Horus to life, and enabled her to pass unharmed among the crocodiles and other evil beasts that infested the waters of the Delta at that time.

When Horus arrived at years of maturity, he set out to find Set and to wage war against his father's murderer. At length they met and a fierce fight ensued, and though Set was defeated before he was finally hurled to the ground, he succeeded in tearing out the right eye of Horus and keeping it.

Even after this fight Set was able to persecute Isis, and Horus was powerless to prevent it page 17 until Thoth made Set give him the right eye of Horus which he had carried off.

Thoth then brought the eye to Horus, and replaced it in his face, and restored sight to it by spitting upon it. Horus then sought out the body of Osiris in order to raise it up to life, and when he found it he untied the bandages so that Osiris might move his limbs, and rise up.

Under the direction of Thoth Horus recited a series of formulas as he presented offerings to Osiris, and he and his sons and Anubis performed the ceremonies which opened the mouth, and nostrils, and the eyes and the ears of page 18 Osiris.

He embraced Osiris and so transferred to him his ka , i. As soon as Osiris had eaten the eye of Horus he became endowed with a soul and vital power, and recovered thereby the complete use of all his mental faculties, which death had suspended.

Osiris became the type and symbol of resurrection among the Egyptians of all periods, because he was a god who had been originally a mortal and had risen from the dead.

Piecing together a number of disconnected hints and brief statements in the texts, it seems pretty clear either that Osiris appealed to the "Great Gods" to take notice that Set had murdered him, or that Set brought a series of charges against Osiris.

At all events the "Great Gods" determined to investigate the matter. The Greater and the Lesser Companies of the Gods assembled in the celestial Anu, or Heliopolis, and ordered Osiris to stand up and defend himself against the charges brought against him by Set.

Isis and Nephthys brought him before the gods, and Horus, "the avenger of his father," came to watch the case on behalf of his father, Osiris. Thoth appeared in the Hall of Judgment in his official capacity as "scribe," i.

Set seems to have pleaded his own cause, and to have repeated the charges which he had made against Osiris. The defence of Osiris was undertaken by Thoth, who proved to the gods that the charges brought against Osiris by Set were unfounded, that the statements of Set were lies, and that therefore Set was a liar.

The gods accepted Thoth's proof of the innocence of Osiris and the guilt of Set, and ordered that Osiris was to be considered a Great God and to have rule over the Kingdom of the Under World, and that Set was to be punished.

After this Set was bound with cords like a beast for sacrifice, and in the presence of Thoth was hacked in pieces. When Set was destroyed Osiris departed from this world to the kingdom which the gods had given him and began to reign over the dead.

This region of the dead, or Dead-land, is called "Tat," , or "Tuat," , but where the Egyptians thought it was situated is not quite clear.

The original home of the cult of Osiris was in the Delta, in a city which in historic times was called Tetu by the Egyptians and Busiris by the Greeks, and it is reasonable to assume that the Tuat, over which Osiris ruled, was situated near this place.

Wherever it was it was not underground, and it was not originally in the sky or even on its confines; but it was located on the borders of the visible world, in the Outer Darkness.

When Ani the scribe arrived there he said, "What is this to which I have come? There is neither water nor air here, its depth is unfathomable, it is as dark as the darkest night, and men wander about here helplessly.

In the Tuat there was neither tree nor plant, for it was the "land where nothing grew"; and in primitive times it was a region of destruction and death, a place where the dead rotted and decayed, a place of abomination, and horror and terror, and annihilation.

But in very early times, certainly page 20 in the Neolithic Period, the Egyptians believed in some kind of a future life, and they dimly conceived that the attainment of that life might possibly depend upon the manner of life which those who hoped to enjoy it led here.

The Egyptians "hated death and loved life," and when the belief gained ground among them that Osiris, the God of the Dead, had himself risen from the dead, and had been acquitted by the gods of heaven after a searching trial, and had the power to "make men and women to be born again," and "to renew life" because of his truth and righteousness, they came to regard him as the Judge as well as the God of the Dead.

As time went on, and moral and religious ideas developed among the Egyptians, it became certain to them that only those who had satisfied Osiris as to their truth-speaking and honest dealing upon earth could hope for admission into his kingdom.

When the power of Osiris became predominant in the Under World, and his fame as a just and righteous judge became well established among the natives of Lower and Upper Egypt, it was universally believed that after death all men would appear before him in his dread Hall of Judgment to receive their reward or their sentence of doom.

The writers of the Pyramid Texts, more than fifty-five centuries ago, dreamed of a time when heaven and earth and men did not exist, when the gods had not yet been born, when death had not been created, , and when anger, speech?

Meanwhile death had come into the world, and since the religion of Osiris gave man a hope of escape from death, and the promise of everlasting life of the peculiar kind that appealed to the great mass of the Egyptian people, the spread of the cult of Osiris and its ultimate triumph over all forms of religion in Egypt were assured.

It was embraced by the Pharaohs, and their high officials, and some of the nobles, and the official priesthood, but the reward which its doctrine offered was not popular with the materialistic Egyptians.

The Judgment of Osiris took place near Abydos, probably at midnight, and a decree of swift annihilation was passed by him on the damned.

Their heads were cut off by the headsman of Osiris, who was called Shesmu, , and their bodies dismembered and destroyed in pits of fire.

There was no eternal punishment for men, for the wicked were annihilated quickly and completely; but inasmuch as Osiris sat in judgment and doomed the wicked to destruction daily, the infliction of punishment never ceased.

The oldest religious texts suggest that the Egyptians always associated the Last Judgment with the weighing of the heart in a pair of scales, and in the illustrated papyri of the Book of the Dead great prominence is always given to the vignettes in which this weighing is being carried out.

The heart, ab , was taken as the symbol of all the emotions, desires, and passions, both good and evil, and out of it proceeded the issues of life.

It was intimately connected with the ka , , i. I have destroyed sin for thee. I have not sinned against men.

I have not oppressed [my] kinsfolk. I have done no wrong in the place of truth. I have not known worthless folk. I have not wrought evil. I have not defrauded the oppressed one of his goods.

I have not done the things that the gods abominate. I have not vilified a servant to his master. I have not caused pain.

I have not let any man hunger. I have made no one to weep. I have not committed murder. I have not commanded any to commit murder for me.

I have inflicted pain on no man. I have not defrauded the temples page 23 of their oblations. I have not purloined the cakes of the gods.

I have not stolen the offerings to the spirits i. I have not committed fornication. I have not polluted myself in the holy places of the god of my city.

I have not diminished from the bushel. I did not take from or add to the acre-measure. I did not encroach on the fields [of others].

I have not added to the weights of the scales. I have not misread the pointer of the scales. I have not taken milk from the mouths of children.

I have not driven cattle from their pastures. I have not snared the birds of the gods. I have not caught fish with fish of their kind.

I have not stopped water [when it should flow]. I have not cut the dam of a canal. I have not extinguished a fire when it should burn.

I have not altered the times of the chosen meat offerings. I have not turned away the cattle [intended for] offerings. I have not repulsed the god at his appearances.

Each of the Forty-Two gods represents one of the nomes of Egypt and has a symbolic name. When the deceased had repeated the magical names of the doors of the Hall, he entered it and saw these gods arranged in two rows, twenty-one on each side of the Hall.

The deceased advanced along the Hall and, addressing each of the Forty-Two gods by his name, declared that he had not committed a certain sin, thus:.

The names of most of the Forty-Two gods are not ancient, but were invented by the priests probably about the same time as the names in the Book of Him that is in the Tuat and the Book of Gates, i.

Their artificial character is shown by their meanings. The early Egyptologists called the second part of the CXXVth Chapter the "Negative Confession," and it is generally known by this somewhat inexact title to this day.

In the third part of the CXXVth Chapter comes the address which the deceased made to the gods after he had declared his innocence of the sins enumerated before the Forty-Two gods.

I know you and I know your names. Let me not fall under your slaughtering knives.

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