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4. Jan. Seite 2 Seit 20 Jahren gehen Tschechen und Slowaken getrennte Wege. Unser slowakischer Autor Michal Hyorecký war seinerzeit strikt gegen. Die Slowakei ist ein Land im östlichen Mitteleuropa. Sie nimmt Teile der. Kanada · Kroatien · Norwegen · Polen · Schottland · Schweiz · Slowakai · Spanien · Tschechien · Türkei · Ungarn · Vereinigte Arabische Emirate · Österreich. Cs go roulett floh nach Bayern ins Reichsgebiet. Europa als Thema Slowakei. Im Juni gab jedoch die neue slowakische Regierung bekannt, dass sie das Projekt nicht mehr verfolge, [] [] Die ÖBB 888 casino hack chip generator.win im Märzdass sie mit einer Fertigstellung nicht vor Vorlage: Die Hohensyburg casino jobs der Slowakei wird erstmals in der Verfassung der Slowakei vom 1. Ein Premier als Präsident. In der West- und Südslowakei dominieren die modalen und die neuen Lieder, während Juegos de casinos book of ra kaum vorhanden sind. Es war ein verhaltener Start der Schweizer, welche im ersten Drittel mit 4 Torschüssen im Angriff harmlos agierten. The World of Music, Bd. Der Eu lotto zahlen Obchod na korze deutsch: Herzlich willkommen im Portal Slowakei. Eine weitere musikalische Region umfasst die historischen Landschaften Zips im Norden und Gemer im zentralen Süden, die seit dem Spätmittelalter wirtschaftlich durch Bergbau und Holzverarbeitung geprägt waren. Die Bevölkerungsentwicklung hatte comdirect broker test der Unabhängigkeit einen Beste Spielothek in Brünninghausen finden stagnierenden Verlauf. Jahrhunderts von der Klarinette abgelöst. Slowakei — Übersichtabgerufen dinner und casino gutschein abgelaufen Jahrhunderts von den Slawen besiedelt. Der Abschluss an der in der Regel zwei- oder dreijährigen Berufsschule ermöglicht hingegen keinen Zugang zum Hochschulstudium. Ebenso gibt es speziell von Österreich und Tschechien zahlreiche ausgeschilderte, regionale Radwege. Benutzerdaten erfolgreich gespeichert Sie können Ihre Daten jederzeit in Ihrem Benutzerkonto einsehen.

Der Verlust des parlamentarischen Vertrauens hat zwingend die Abberufung durch den Staatspräsidenten zur Folge. Das Parlament der Slowakei ist der Nationalrat der Slowakischen Republik , welcher als Einkammerparlament mit insgesamt Abgeordneten die Legislative ausübt und alle vier Jahre neu gewählt wird.

In und unmittelbar nach der Wende vom November wurden zahlreiche Parteien und politische Bewegungen gegründet, die sich jedoch nicht zu einem stabilen Parteiensystem fügten.

Interne Konflikte und Abspaltungen führten zur Gründung neuer Parteien. Inzwischen Stand gibt es über politische Parteien in der Slowakei, womit das Land laut dem Politikwissenschaftler Rüdiger Kipke noch weit entfernt von einer Konsolidierung des Parteiensystems scheint.

Darin manifestiert sich der tief verwurzelte Gegensatz zwischen den Anhängern einer säkular-liberalen Ordnung westlicher Prägung dafür stand z.

SNS und Ungarn z. Einen Wahlerfolg verbuchen konnte auch das Lager der Nationalisten. Parallel dazu verfügen die Krajs seit nach einer leichten Dezentralisierungsreform auch über eine kleine Autonomie bei der Gestaltung gewisser Bereiche z.

Mittelschulen, Gesundheitswesen und Infrastruktur. Jeder Kraj verfügt über eine Landeshauptstadt und einen Landesvorsitzenden, der alle vier Jahre gewählt wird.

Territorial sind diese Selbstverwaltungslandschaftsverbände mit den staatlichen Landschaftsverbänden identisch.

Von bis waren die Okresy administrativ bedeutungslos, waren jedoch für statistische Zwecke sowie bei Vergabe von Kfz-Kennzeichen behalten.

Für staatliche Verwaltung bestanden 50 Gebietsbereichen, die in der Regel mehrere Kreise umfassen und von den Bezirksbehörden verwaltet werden.

Oktober 72 Kreisbehörden wieder eingeführt. Die Regierung Fico hingegen stellte sich während des Georgienkriegs demonstrativ auf die Seite Russlands und lehnt auch den von den USA propagierten Raketenschild in Mitteleuropa sowie die Unabhängigkeit des Kosovo ab.

Neben den engen wirtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist auch die gegenseitige Sympathie der beiden Nationen, die Anfang der er noch unter nationalen Streitigkeiten zu leiden hatten, seit deren Unabhängigkeit kontinuierlich gestiegen und derzeit auf einem Rekordhoch.

Am schwierigsten gestalten sich die Beziehungen zum südlichen Nachbarland Ungarn. Sie sind historisch schwer belastet durch die tausendjährige Zugehörigkeit der Slowaken zum Königreich Ungarn, dessen Regierung im Jahrhundert durch eine repressive Magyarisierungspolitik versuchte die nichtmagyarischen Völker Ungarns zwangszuassimilieren, sowie die Besetzung der Süd- und Ostslowakei durch ungarische Truppen vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg siehe dazu Erster Wiener Schiedsspruch und Slowakisch-Ungarischer Krieg.

Die bilateralen Beziehungen zu Österreich sind im Gegensatz dazu historisch nicht belastet. Einziger Streitpunkt in den ansonsten guten Verhältnissen stellt das slowakische Kernkraftwerk Bohunice.

Die Slowakei besteht in ihrer Energiepolitik am Festhalten an der Atomkraft, Österreich hingegen auf entsprechende Sicherheitsstandards.

Das Verhältnis zum Nachbarn Polen kann als gut und frei von Konflikten bezeichnet werden. Mit dem Einsetzen der Flüchtlingskrise in Europa ab gehörte die Slowakei zu den Ländern, die sich einer Verteilungsquote in der EU für ankommende Flüchtlinge strikt widersetzten.

Die Slowakei betont insbesondere, dass man keine muslimischen Kriegsflüchtlinge aufnehmen werde. Das Innenministerium in Bratislava erklärte Anfang , diese würden sich in der Slowakei auch nicht heimisch fühlen.

Im Jahr beantragten lediglich Menschen in der Slowakei politisches Asyl; acht davon wurde Asyl gewährt. Im Jahre betrug die Personalstärke Die Slowakischen Streitkräfte slowakisch: Die Slowakei verfügt aktuell etwa über Das Heer hat derzeit 22 Kampfpanzer.

Die Luftstreitkräfte verfügen über 24 Kampfflugzeuge. Der Staatshaushalt umfasste Ausgaben von umgerechnet 37,0 Mrd. US-Dollar , dem standen Einnahmen von umgerechnet 34,8 Mrd.

Jahrhundert war das Gebiet der heutigen Slowakei, das damals zum Königreich Ungarn gehörte, weltberühmt für sein Bergbauwesen. Jahrhundert galt die Slowakei innerhalb der demokratischen Tschechoslowakei zunächst als technologisch rückständiger Agrarstaat, [] wurde aber im Laufe der kommunistischen Ära durch den Aufbau einer Schwer- und Waffenindustrie stark industrialisiert.

In der Folge stieg die Slowakei zu einer der wichtigsten Panzerwerkstätten europa- und weltweit auf. Wegen der totalen Einbrüche in der Industrieproduktion kam es zu einer fast völligen Deindustrialisierung des Landes.

Mit dem Amtsantritt der Regierung Dzurinda wurde ein stark wirtschaftsliberaler Kurs eingeschlagen. Von besonderer Bedeutung waren die Sparprogramme der Jahre und Beide Sparpakete basierten auf Preis- und Steuererhöhungen im öffentlichen Sektor und Senkungen im privaten Sektor, um den Staatshaushalt zu verbessern und gleichzeitig ausländische Investoren anzuziehen.

Infolge der Weltwirtschaftskrise ab kam es zu starken Einbrüchen in der Produktion, die sich jedoch bis wieder relativ stabilisierte.

Im selben Jahr gab Jaguar Land Rover bekannt, sich ebenfalls mit einer Fabrik in Nitra niederlassen zu wollen, deren erste Fahrzeuge vom Band laufen sollen.

Die Regierung Fico — beendete den neoliberalen Kurs des Vorgängerkabinetts und versuchte ein sozialdemokratisches Programm umzusetzen.

Im Jahr trat die Slowakei dem Schengen-Abkommen bei, am 1. Januar wurde die Slowakei Teil der Eurozone. Die wirtschaftlichen Stärken der Slowakei liegen unter anderem in der langen industriellen Tradition, dem hohen Wirtschaftswachstum im europäischen Vergleich, gut ausgebildeten, motivierten Arbeitskräften und dem Wegfallen von Wechselkursrisiken und Transaktionskosten aufgrund der Mitgliedschaft in der Eurozone.

Als Schwächen der slowakischen Wirtschaft sind eine hohe Abhängigkeit von Exporten, ein kleiner Binnenmarkt mit relativ niedriger Kaufkraft und die schlecht ausgebaute Infrastruktur im Osten des Landes zu nennen.

Ein weiteres Problem stellt das starke Ost-West-Gefälle und die unterschiedliche Entwicklung der einzelnen Regionen dar.

So überhöht die Hauptstadt Bratislava mit ihrem Hinterland in sämtlichen wirtschaftlichen Bereichen den Rest des Landes.

Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt pro Kopf betrug im selben Jahr Die Gesamtzahl der Beschäftigten wird für auf 2,76 Millionen geschätzt.

Es orientiert sich an den Tälern und Flüssen in der sehr gebirgigen Slowakei. Die Breitspurstrecke kommt von der Ukraine und endet in Haniska.

Seit bestehen offiziell Planungen, die Breitspurstrecke nach Bratislava zu verlängern. Auch Österreich zeigte Interesse, sie weiter bis Wien auszuführen.

Im Juni gab jedoch die neue slowakische Regierung bekannt, dass sie das Projekt nicht mehr verfolge, [] [] Die ÖBB erklärten im März , dass sie mit einer Fertigstellung nicht vor Vorlage: Für den Güterverkehr bedeutsam sind elektrifizierte und mehrgleisige Schienenstrecken.

Dies ist gegenüber anderen europäischen Ländern ein niedriger Wert. Die Instandhaltung ist dabei auf drei Ebenen geteilt: Ordnung jeweils von den Selbstverwaltungsgebieten.

Der Autobahnbau geht in das Jahr zurück. Die Hauptverbindungen verlaufen hierbei parallel zu den Eisenbahnen. In der Slowakei bestehen vier wichtige Autobahnverbindungen:.

Die Autobahn D2 80 Kilometer ist auf slowakischer und tschechischer Seite fertiggestellt. Die Autobahn D4 bzw. November die beiden nahe gelegenen Hauptstädte Bratislava und Wien.

Erhältlich sind Jahresvignetten Preis Ordnung abdeckt und ähnlich wie die österreichische GO-Box fungiert. Es gibt fünf internationale Flughäfen in der Slowakei.

Einzige wichtige Binnenschifffahrtsroute ist die Donau. Jahrhundert auch eine für Berufspendler besondere Verbindung.

Meist werden die Gewässer nur im Sommerhalbjahr befahren. Die Organisation des slowakischen Bildungswesens ist zwischen dem Bildungsministerium und den Landschaftsverbänden geteilt und die allgemeine Schulpflicht ist auf zehn Jahre verankert.

Klasse ist es möglich, in ein achtjähriges Gymnasium , das die zweite Stufe mit der Mittelschule kombiniert, zu wechseln.

Nach dem Abschluss der Grundschule spalten sich die Möglichkeiten. Schulen, die mit der Matura enden und somit eine Zulassung zur Hochschule oder Universität ermöglichen, sind vierjährige Gymnasien, Konservatorien sowie fachspezifische weiterführende Schulen.

Der Abschluss an der in der Regel zwei- oder dreijährigen Berufsschule ermöglicht hingegen keinen Zugang zum Hochschulstudium.

Die tertiäre Ausbildung ist zwischen den Universitäten, Hochschulen und Akademien aufgeteilt. Die Mehrheit der Universitäten und Hochschulen befindet sich in öffentlicher Hand, drei sind staatlich betrieben, während die anderen privat betrieben werden.

Die Eltern von Andy Warhol sind in der Slowakei geboren. Einige Namen, die auch im Ausland bekannt sind: Die heutige slowakische Volksmusik und die in der Slowakei praktizierte Kunstmusik werden über hypothetische Entwicklungslinien bis ins Mittelalter zurückverfolgt.

Die auf alten slawischen Stilelementen und jüngeren, aus der westeuropäischen Volks- und Kunstmusik entnommenen Formen basierende Volksmusik bildet eine alle Gattungen und Funktionen umfassende stilistische Einheit.

Nach einem historischen Schichtenmodell werden zunächst alte Lieder von im Jahrhundert entstandenen, neuen Liedgattungen unterschieden.

Zur ältesten Schicht gehören magisch-rituelle Lieder, die rezitativisch mit engen Sekunde - und Terz -Tonfolgen vorgetragen werden.

Die auf das Jahrhundert kam als Fortsetzung der Hirtenlieder die Gruppe der Räuberlieder hinzu, deren weiter gespannte Melodien einen Tonumfang von über einer Oktave ausnutzen.

Zu ihnen gehören Liebeslieder und Balladen, die von sozialen Themen handeln. Jahrhundert entstand aus der bisherigen Volksmusik mit ihren vor harmonischen Tonfolgen — unter anderem durch die westeuropäische Kunstmusik angeregt — eine modale Liedschicht auf der Grundlage alter Kirchentonarten mit lydischen , mixolydischen , dorischen und äolischen Modi.

Diese modalen Tonfolgen gingen in unterschiedliche Liedgattungen der Volks- und Kunstmusik ein. Die bis zu 25 Silben langen Verszeilen werden in festen rhythmischen Strukturen zur Begleitung von Paartänzen gesungen.

Thematisch folgen die neuen Lieder auf die im Jahrhundert entstandene Liebeslyrik, ferner handeln sie von sozialen Themen aus der Schicht der Handwerker, Soldaten und Auswanderer.

Hinzu kommen epische Bänkel- und Jahrmarktslieder. Jahrhunderts die städtische Musik der Roma eingeflossen.

Zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts verschwanden einige traditionelle Stile, dafür kamen neue Formen der Volksmusik hinzu, zu denen die Arbeiter- und Tanzlieder der er und er Jahre gehören.

Die Partisanenlieder während des Zweiten Weltkrieges waren Umdichtungen älterer Lieder, wie auch die Gesänge der sozialistischen Genossenschaften in den er Jahren.

Zur historischen Schichtung der Volksliedtradition tritt die stilistische Unterscheidung in vier Regionen: In der West- und Südslowakei dominieren die modalen und die neuen Lieder, während Hirtenlieder kaum vorhanden sind.

Diese gehören, zusammen mit lydischen und mixolydischen Tonfolgen, hauptsächlich zu den bergigen Gegenden der Mittelslowakei. Charakteristisch für die Ostslowakei sind schnelle Tanzlieder und mehrstimmige Gesänge, die aus dem Eine weitere musikalische Region umfasst die historischen Landschaften Zips im Norden und Gemer im zentralen Süden, die seit dem Spätmittelalter wirtschaftlich durch Bergbau und Holzverarbeitung geprägt waren.

In den zahlreichen Handwerkerdörfern wurden nach alten Traditionen Räuberlieder, epische Balladen und mehrstimmige Tanzlieder gepflegt.

Das Repertoire der Instrumentalmusik ist aus dem Bestand der Liedmelodien übernommen. Von den gelisteten Aerophonen gehören gut die Hälfte typologisch zu den Flöten , welche die slowakische Instrumentalmusik dominieren.

Jahrhunderts von der Klarinette abgelöst. Einflüsse aus der klassischen Musik prägen die volksmusikalischen Streicherquartette mit Violine , zweite Violine, Bratsche und Kontrabass , häufig erweitert um ein Hackbrett cimbal und eine Klarinette.

Die Violine und in den Dörfern früher häufig von den Musikern selbst aus einem Holzblock hergestellte Streichinstrumente werden allgemein husle genannt.

Die Streichensembles begleiten Tänze bei Dorffesten und Familienfeiern. Im Norden und in der übrigen Slowakei kommen zwei unterschiedliche Sackpfeifentypen gajdy vor.

Jahrhundert war der gregorianische Gesang vorherrschend, im Jahrhundert brachten deutsche Siedler ein Repertoire von mehrstimmigen geistlichen Liedern mit.

In den Städten der Mittelslowakei pflegte man im Jahrhundert die Barockmusik deutscher Komponisten. Osmanische Einflüsse Janitscharenmusik wirkten sich neben Heiduken - und Hirtentänzen auf die Instrumentalmusik des In dieser Zeit waren die Klöster bedeutende Zentren des Musikschaffens, die führende Stellung für die Pflege geistlicher Musik nahm jedoch ab dem Die Stilepoche der Klassik dauerte in der Slowakei bis Jahrhundert geriet die Musik Ende des Jahrhunderts in den Dienst nationaler Bestrebungen, wodurch slowakische Volksliedmelodien eine neue Bedeutung erhielten.

Die musikalische Moderne der ersten Hälfte des Jahrhunderts führte die nationale Musik fort. Damit ging eine schrittweise Abkehr von der Doktrin des Sozialistischen Realismus einher.

Bei der Rangliste der Pressefreiheit , welche von Reporter ohne Grenzen herausgegeben wird, belegte die Slowakei Platz 17 von Ländern. Die slowakische Filmproduktion ist nach Gründung der Tschechoslowakei mit Hilfe der finanziellen Unterstützung slowakischen Diaspora aus Amerika gestartet.

Der Film Obchod na korze deutsch: Jahrhundert bedeutendste slowakische Filmregisseur ist Juraj Jakubisko. Jakubisko hatte sein Filmdebüt mit Kristove roky , seine weiteren Filme wurden jedoch aufgrund der Normalisierung in der Tschechoslowakei bis Ende der er Jahre verboten.

Bathory wurde von Die nächste Filmproduktion war der Film Slavic Epopee. A Thousand Years of Solitude , der in die Kinos kam.

Er behandelt die Geschichte der Slawen im 9. Der populärste Sport der Slowakei ist Eishockey , der gleichzeitig als Nationalsport gilt.

Slowakische Eishockey-Spieler waren schon während der Tschechoslowakei sehr erfolgreich. Bereits die Tschechoslowakische Eishockeynationalmannschaft zählte zur weltweiten Elite der Eishockey-Nationen und gewann sechsmal den Weltmeistertitel.

Nach der Unabhängigkeit konnte die Slowakische Eishockeynationalmannschaft als ersten Erfolg die Silbermedaille bei der Weltmeisterschaft im Jahr verbuchen.

Als der beliebte ehemalige Kapitän des Nationalteams Pavol Demitra bei einem Flugzeugabsturz in Russland tödlich verunglückte, wurden im Land Trauerversammlungen abgehalten und Gedenkstätten aus Kerzen, Blumen und Bildern errichtet.

Die Slowakei schied nach einer 1: Der slowakische Kanute Peter Hochschorner ist dreimaliger Olympiasieger. Im Schachspiel spielte der zur Weltelite gehörige gebürtige Armenier Sergej Movsesjan zehn Jahre lang für die Slowakei, spielt heute jedoch erneut für seine Heimat Armenien.

Die Frauenmannschaft der Slowakei siegte überraschend bei der Europäischen Mannschaftsmeisterschaft im Schach in Batumi. Nichtstaatliche arbeitsfreie Tage sind der 6.

Januar Dreikönigstag , Karfreitag, Ostermontag, der 1. Mai Tag der Arbeit , der 8. Mai Tag des Sieges über den Faschismus , der November Allerheiligen , der Dezember Heiliger Abend , der Dezember Erster Weihnachtstag , der Dieser Artikel behandelt die entstandene Slowakische Republik , zur Slowakei in den Jahren bis siehe Slowakischer Staat.

Geomorphologische Einteilung der Slowakei. Liste der Flüsse in der Slowakei. Religionen in der Slowakei.

Liste der Hochschulen in der Slowakei. Bericht über die menschliche Entwicklung Deutsche Gesellschaft für die Vereinten Nationen e.

Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, Berlin undp. Schulalltag und nationale Integration in Ungarn. Oldenbourg Verlag, München , S. Der Link wurde automatisch als defekt markiert.

Der Archivlink wurde automatisch eingesetzt und noch nicht geprüft. The Encyclopaedia of Slovakia and the Slovaks , S.

European bison without borders. Geraadpleegd op 14 oktober Mai , abgerufen am Regime transition and the emergence of ethnic minorities.

Jacques Bertrand, Oded Haklai Hrsg. Democratization and Ethnic Minorities. State, Ethnicity, Indigenism and Citizenship. World Scientific Publishing, Singapure , S.

Cambridge University Press, , S. Zur deutschen Übersetzung der slowakischen Verfassung vgl. The Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic number 14, uniformed personnel.

There is a joint Czech-Slovak peacekeeping force in Kosovo. From the army transformed into a fully professional organisation and compulsory military service was abolished.

Slovak Ground Forces are made up of two active mechanised infantry brigades. Training and support forces comprise a National Support Element Multifunctional Battalion, Transport Battalion, Repair Battalion , a garrison force of the capital city Bratislava, as well as a training battalion, and various logistics and communication and information bases.

Miscellaneous forces under the direct command of the General Staff include the 5th Special Forces Regiment. The US State Department in reported:.

The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens; however, there were problems in some areas. The most significant human rights issues included incidents of interference with privacy; corruption; widespread discrimination against Roma minority; and security force violence against ethnic and racial minorities government actions and rhetoric did little to discourage.

The government investigated reports of abuses by members of the security forces and other government institutions, although some observers questioned the thoroughness of these investigations.

Some officials engaged in corrupt practices with impunity. Two former ministers were convicted of corruption during the year. Human rights in Slovakia are guaranteed by the Constitution of Slovakia from the year and by multiple international laws signed in Slovakia between and As for administrative division , Slovakia is subdivided into 8 krajov singular — kraj , usually translated as "region" , each of which is named after its principal city.

Regions have enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy since Their self-governing bodies are referred to as Self-governing or autonomous Regions sg.

The "kraje" are subdivided into many okresy sg. In terms of economics and unemployment rate, the western regions are richer than eastern regions.

The Slovak Republic continues exhibiting robust economic performance, with strong growth backed by a sound financial sector, low public debt and high international competitiveness drawing on large inward investment.

The country used to be dubbed the " Tatra Tiger ". Slovakia successfully transformed from a centrally planned economy to a market-driven economy.

Major privatisations are completed, the banking sector is almost completely in private hands, and foreign investment has risen.

The Slovak economy is one of the fastest growing economies in Europe and 3rd fastest in eurozone In , and with GDP growth of Slovakia adopted the Euro currency on 1 January as the 16th member of the Eurozone.

The euro in Slovakia was approved by the European commission on 7 May The Slovak koruna was revalued on 28 May to Slovakia is an attractive country for foreign investors mainly because of its low wages, low tax rates and well educated labour force.

In recent years, Slovakia has been pursuing a policy of encouraging foreign investment. In March , the Ministry of Finance announced that Slovakia's economy is developed enough to stop being an aid receiver from the World Bank.

Slovakia became an aid provider at the end of Although Slovakia's GDP comes mainly from the tertiary services sector, the industrial sector also plays an important role within its economy.

The main industry sectors are car manufacturing and electrical engineering. Since , Slovakia has been the world's largest producer of cars per capita, [92] with a total of 1.

Volkswagen 's in Bratislava models: In , Jaguar Land Rover is set to open the country's fourth automobile assembly plant in Nitra. From electrical engineering companies, Foxconn has a factory at Nitra for LCD TV manufacturing, Samsung at Galanta for computer monitors and television sets manufacturing.

Bratislava's geographical position in Central Europe has long made Bratislava a crossroads for international trade traffic. Today, Bratislava is the road, railway, waterway and airway hub.

In , Slovakia produced a total of 28 GWh of electricity while at the same time consumed 28 GWh. The slightly higher level of consumption than the capacity of production - GWh meant the country was not self-sufficient in energy sourcing.

Slovakia imported electricity mainly from the Czech Republic 9 GWh — Nuclear energy accounts for After deactivating the last of the two reactors of the V1 block in , Slovakia instantly stopped being self-dependent in energy production.

It is scheduled for decommissioning in Two new reactors are under construction in Mochovce plant. The nuclear power production in Slovakia sometimes draws attention to Austrian green-energy activists who occasionally organise protests and block the borders between the two countries.

There are four main highways D1 to D4 and eight express ways R1 to R8. Most of them are still in the planning phase.

It is located 9 kilometres 5. It serves civil and governmental, scheduled and unscheduled domestic and international flights. The current runways support the landing of all common types of aircraft currently used.

The Port of Bratislava is one of the two international river ports in Slovakia. Slovakia features natural landscapes, mountains, caves , medieval castles and towns, folk architecture, spas and ski resorts.

More than 5,4 million tourists visited Slovakia in , and the most attractive destinations are the capital of Bratislava and the High Tatras.

Slovakia contains many castles, most of which are in ruins. Slovakia's position in Europe and the country's past part of the multicultural Kingdom of Hungary , the Habsburg monarchy and Czechoslovakia made many cities and towns similar to the cities in the Czech Republic such as Prague , Austria such as Salzburg or Hungary such as Budapest.

A historical center with at least one square has been preserved in many towns. Historical centers have been going through restoration in recent years.

Historical churches can be found in virtually every village and town in Slovakia. The Basilica of St. Martin's Concathedral in Bratislava served as the coronation church for the Kingdom of Hungary.

The oldest sacral buildings in Slovakia stem from the Great Moravian period in the 9th century. Very precious structures are the complete wooden churches of northern and northern-eastern Slovakia.

Most were built from the 15th century onwards by Catholics , Lutherans and members of eastern-rite churches.

Dielo shop chain sells works of Slovak artists and craftsmen. These shops are mostly found in towns and cities.

Prices of imported products are generally the same as in the neighbouring countries, whereas prices of local products and services, especially food, are usually lower.

The Slovak Academy of Sciences has been the most important scientific and research institution in the country since Slovaks have made notable scientific and technical contributions during the history.

The list of important scientists and their inventions include:. Slovakia is currently in the negotiation process of becoming a member of the European Space Agency.

Observer status was granted in , when Slovakia signed the General Agreement on Cooperation [] in which information about ongoing education programmes was shared and Slovakia was invited to various negotiations of the ESA.

Slovak research and development organizations can apply for funding of projects regarding space technologies advancement. Slovakia will be obliged to set state budget inclusive ESA funding.

According to the census, [] the majority of the inhabitants of Slovakia are Slovaks Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority 8. In Slovakia was estimated to have a total fertility rate of 1.

The largest waves of Slovak emigration occurred in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The official language is Slovak , a member of the Slavic language family.

Hungarian is widely spoken in the southern regions, and Rusyn is used in some parts of the Northeast. Slovakia is ranked among the top EU countries regarding the knowledge of foreign languages.

The best known foreign language in Slovakia is Czech. Eurostat report also shows that The deaf community uses the Slovak Sign Language. The Slovak constitution guarantees freedom of religion.

After further reductions due to postwar immigration and assimilation, only about 2, Jews remain today 0. In , Slovak parliament passed a new bill that will obstruct Islam and other religious organisations from becoming state-recognised religion by doubling the minimum followers threshold from 25, to 50, In , there were an estimated 5, Muslims in Slovakia representing less than 0.

Education in Slovakia is compulsory from age 6 to The education system consists of elementary school which is divided into two parts, the first grade age 6—10 and the second grade age 10—15 which is finished by taking nationwide testing called Monitor, from Slovak language and math.

Parents may apply for social assistance for a child that is studying on an elementary school or a high-school. If approved, the state provides basic study necessities for the child.

Schools provide books to all their students with usual exceptions of books for studying a foreign language and books which require taking notes in them, which are mostly present at the first grade of elementary school.

After finishing elementary school, students are obliged to take one year in high school. They are able to pick from Gymnasium, which is seen as the highest level of high-school education and usually considered as a preparatory school for attending a university, although anyone can apply to any university.

Besides Gymnasiums, Slovakia has specialised high schools with bacalaureat and specialised highschools without bacalaureat. Schools with bacalaureat take 5 years to complete while the ones without usually take less.

Gymnasiums and many other high schools require passing an entry exam, consider previous study results or perform a combination of both before accepting a new student.

A student may apply to two high schools at once. If student fails to get accepted in any high school, the student can submit an appeal or seek a third high school with an empty slot for one more student outside of the standard application process.

Parents and students prefer to avoid this uncertainty and tend to choose at least one high school with a high chance of acceptance.

Most high-schools are finished by passing a matura exam, which consists of Slovak language and literature, one foreign language and one specialised subject.

If school offered multiple specializations or taught multiple foreign languages, student may choose which subject he or she wants to do the matura exam in.

If student wants and the school allows it, it's possible to do matura exam in more than three subjects. After finishing a high school, students can go to university and are highly encouraged to do so.

Slovakia has a wide range of universities. The biggest university is Comenius University , established in Although it's not the first university ever established on Slovak territory, it's the oldest university that is still running.

Most universities in Slovakia are public funded, where anyone can apply. Every citizen has a right for free education on public schools.

If student has to repeat a year or attends a second school after obtaining a degree, or is older than 26 years and attending Bachelor's or Master's courses or is older than 30 years and attending Doctorate's courses, student has to pay the expenses.

Students of Doctorate's courses receive a scholarship. Students of Bachelor's and of Master's courses can apply for a scholarship depending on their study performance.

The limit for applying for performance scholarship is set individually by each university. Slovakia has several privately funded universities, however public universities consistently score better in the ranking than their private counterparts.

Universities have different criteria for accepting students. Anyone can apply to any number of universities.

The student may apply for a social discount for the application fee. Several universities, including some the best ranking in Slovakia, accept all applicants and perform a screening process during the study, which results in a higher dropout rate among the students compared to universities that require passing an entry exam.

Other methods of acceptance may include weighting past study results from high school, passing an entry test or a combination of both.

Folk tradition has rooted strongly in Slovakia and is reflected in literature, music, dance and architecture. The legend says he was taking from the rich and giving to the poor.

Visual art in Slovakia is represented through painting , drawing , printmaking , illustration , arts and crafts , sculpture , photography or conceptual art.

The supreme and central gallery institution displaying Slovak art nowadays is the Slovak National Gallery , [] established in With its height of The 19th century in Slovakia was a turbulent period of time when Slovaks began experiencing their national revival in the kingdom of Austria-Hungary.

Romanticism of Jozef B. The inspiration of their work stems mainly from the lives of everyday people in Slovak rurals which they admired and idealised.

Slovak graphic art experienced its peak during the 20th century. For a list of notable Slovak writers and poets, see List of Slovak authors.

Medieval literature , in the period from the 11th to the 15th centuries, was written in Latin , Czech and Slovakised Czech.

Lyric prayers, songs and formulas was still controlled by the Church, while epic was concentrated on legends.

Authors from this period include Johannes de Thurocz , author of the Chronica Hungarorum and Maurus, both of them Hungarians. There were two leading persons who codified the Slovak language.

It was the codification of the first ever literary language of Slovaks. By the end of the s, radios were common household items, though only state stations were legal.

Slovak popular music began as a mix of bossa nova , cool jazz , and rock, with propagandistic lyrics. Due to Czechoslovak isolation, the domestic market was active and many original bands evolved.

Slovakia had a very strong pop culture during the s and s. This movement brought many original bands with their own unique interpretations of modern music.

The quality of socialist music was very high. After the Velvet Revolution and the declaration of the Slovak state, domestic music dramatically diversified as free enterprise encouraged the formation of new bands and the development of new genres of music.

Soon, however, major labels brought pop music to Slovakia and drove many of the small companies out of business. During the s, American grunge and alternative rock , and Britpop have a wide following, as well as a newfound enthusiasm for musicals.

Peter Lipa born is a well-known Slovak singer, composer and promoter of modern jazz. He is one of the main organisers of the " Bratislava Jazz Days " festival, which takes place in the capital city at the end of October each year since It is the biggest jazz venue in Slovakia.

Martin Valihora , having been awarded a scholarship on the Berklee College of Music in Boston, [] he established himself as a part of the New York's jazz scene.

He has been playing with the world's famous Japanese jazz pianist Hiromi Uehara. Traditional Slovak cuisine is based mainly on pork meat, poultry chicken is the most widely eaten, followed by duck , goose , and turkey , flour , potatoes , cabbage , and milk products.

It is relatively closely related to Hungarian , Czech and Austrian cuisine. On the east it is also influenced by Ukrainian and Polish cuisine.

In comparison with other European countries, "game meat" is more accessible in Slovakia due to vast resources of forest and because hunting is relatively popular.

Lamb and goat are eaten but are not widely popular. Bryndza is a salty cheese made of a sheep milk, characterised by a strong taste and aroma.

A typical soup is a sauerkraut soup "kapustnica". A blood sausage called "krvavnica", made from any and all parts of a butchered pig is also a specific Slovak meal.

Wine is enjoyed throughout Slovakia. Slovak wine comes predominantly from the southern areas along the Danube and its tributaries; the northern half of the country is too cold and mountainous to grow grapevines.

Sport activities are practised widely in Slovakia, many of them on a professional level. Ice hockey and football have traditionally been regarded as the most popular sports in Slovakia.

Among the popular are also tennis , handball , basketball , volleyball , whitewater slalom or athletics. One of the most popular team sports in Slovakia is ice hockey.

Slovakia became the member of IIHF on 2 February [] and ever since has won 4 medals in Ice Hockey World Championships , consisting of 1 gold, 2 silver and 1 bronze medal.

Slovak national hockey team made five appearances in the Olympic games too, ended up 4th in the Winter Olympics in Vancouver.

Prior to , Slovak team HC Slovan Bratislava joined the Kontinental Hockey League , considered the strongest hockey league in Europe, and the second-best in the world.

Association football is the most popular sport in Slovakia, with over , registered players. Since , Slovak national football team has qualified only once to the FIFA World Cup in , in which they proceeded into the Last 16, where they were defeated by Netherlands.

The most notable result was the 3—2 victory over Italy. They also remain the only Slovak club that has won a match at the group stage.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 10 November For other political states, see Slovak Republic disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Slovenia , Slavonia , or Moravian Slovakia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Slovak koruna before Shared code 42 with Czech Republic until Geomorphological division of Slovakia. List of national parks of Slovakia. List of caves in Slovakia.

List of rivers of Slovakia. Endemic Plant Species in Slovakia. Politics of Slovakia and Law of Slovakia. The National Council building in Bratislava.

Episcopal Summer Palace , the seat of the government of Slovakia. Foreign relations of Slovakia. List of diplomatic missions of Slovakia.

Embassy of Japan in Bratislava. Slovak Embassy in Washington, D. Slovak 5th Special Forces Regiment operating in eastern Afghanistan.

Automotive industry in Slovakia. Bratislava Airport , the main international airport of Slovakia. A train of Railways of Slovak Republic. The Old Town in Bratislava.

History of the Slovak language. Young people wearing traditional Slovak dress, typical in Detva District. Slovak women in traditional dress demonstrating a traditional method of grinding grain into flour.

Main altar in Basilica of St. Andy Warhol 's parents were immigrants from Slovakia. Slovak National Gallery in Bratislava. The new Slovak National Theatre building in Bratislava.

Slovak Philharmonic Orchestra in Bratislava. Slovak wine and Beer in Slovakia. Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 4 December Retrieved 14 September Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved 3 June Archived from the original on 26 August Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 16 October Retrieved on 11 August Human Development Report, Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 10 March Retrieved 25 November Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 26 September Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.

Retrieved 6 March Retrieved 15 February At the Price of the Republic: University of Pittsburgh Pre. A Decade of Independence, — Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 5 January Slovak Sociological Review, Issue 3.

Polisencky, History of Czechoslovakia in Outline Prague: Bohemia International at — Retrieved 28 October The Fate of European Jewry, — Oxford, , pp.

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Czechoslovakia was never part of the Soviet Union and remained independent to a degree. The end of Communist rule in Czechoslovakia in , during the peaceful Velvet Revolution , was followed once again by the country's dissolution, this time into two successor states.

The word "socialist" was dropped in the names of the two republics, i. In November the federal parliament voted to dissolve the country officially on December 31, The Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic went their separate ways after 1 January , an event sometimes called the Velvet Divorce.

On 1 January , Slovakia adopted the Euro as its national currency. The Slovak landscape is noted primarily for its mountainous nature, with the Carpathian Mountains extending across most of the northern half of the country.

The largest lowland is the fertile Danubian Lowland in the southwest, followed by the Eastern Slovak Lowland in the southeast.

Tatras, with 29 peaks higher than 2, metres 8, feet AMSL , are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains. They are divided into several parts.

The Tatra mountain range is represented as one of the three hills on the coat of arms of Slovakia. There are 9 national parks in Slovakia, they cover 6.

Low Tatras National Park. Slovak Paradise National Park. Slovakia has hundreds of caves and caverns under its mountains, of which 30 are open to the public.

Most of the rivers stem in the Slovak mountains. The biggest volume of discharge in Slovak rivers is during spring , when the snow melts from the mountains.

The only exception is the Danube, whose discharge is the greatest during summer when the snow melts in the Alps. The Danube is the largest river that flows through Slovakia.

There are around naturally formed tarns in High Tatras. The Slovak climate lies between the temperate and continental climate zones with relatively warm summers and cold, cloudy and humid winters.

The weather differs from the mountainous north to the plains in the south. In Slovakia, there are four seasons , each season Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter lasts three months.

The dry continental air brings in the summer heat and winter frosts. In contrast, oceanic air brings rainfalls and reduces summer temperatures.

In the lowlands and valleys there is often fog, especially in winter. In Slovakia, the weather and climate in the spring is very unstable.

Showers or thunderstorms may occur because of the summer monsoon called Medardova kvapka Medard drop — 40 days of rain. Autumn in Slovakia starts on 23 September and is mostly characterised by wet weather and wind, although the first weeks can be very warm and sunny.

Late September and early October is a dry and sunny time of year so-called Indian Summer. In December and January it is usually snowing, these are the coldest months of the year.

At lower altitudes, snow does not stay the whole winter, it is changing into the thaw and frost. Slovakia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 19 May , and became a party to the convention on 25 August The biodiversity of Slovakia comprises animals such as annellids, arthropods, molluscs, nematodes and vertebrates , fungi Ascomycota , Basidiomycota , Chytridiomycota , Glomeromycota and Zygomycota , micro-organisms including Mycetozoa , and plants.

Over species of fungi have been recorded from Slovakia. The conservation status of non-lichen-forming fungi in Slovakia is not well documented, but there is a red list for its larger fungi.

Slovakia is a parliamentary democratic republic with a multi-party system. The last parliamentary elections were held on 5 March and two rounds of presidential elections took place on 15 and 29 March The Slovak head of state and the formal head of the executive is the president currently Andrej Kiska , though with very limited powers.

The president is elected by direct, popular vote under the two-round system for a five-year term. The prime minister is appointed by the president.

The remainder of the cabinet is appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister. Delegates are elected for a four-year term on the basis of proportional representation.

The Constitution of the Slovak Republic was ratified 1 September , and became effective 1 January It was amended in September to allow direct election of the president and again in February due to EU admission requirements.

The civil law system is based on Austro-Hungarian codes. Slovakia accepts the compulsory International Court of Justice jurisdiction with reservations.

Slovakia is a member of the United Nations since and participates in its specialized agencies. The country was, on 10 October , elected to a two-year term on the UN Security Council from to Slovakia maintains diplomatic relations with countries, primarily through its Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

As of December , Slovakia maintained 90 missions abroad, including 64 embassies, seven missions to multilateral organisations, nine consulates-general, one consular office, one Slovak Economic and Cultural Office and eight Slovak Institutes.

The Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic number 14, uniformed personnel. There is a joint Czech-Slovak peacekeeping force in Kosovo.

From the army transformed into a fully professional organisation and compulsory military service was abolished. Slovak Ground Forces are made up of two active mechanised infantry brigades.

Training and support forces comprise a National Support Element Multifunctional Battalion, Transport Battalion, Repair Battalion , a garrison force of the capital city Bratislava, as well as a training battalion, and various logistics and communication and information bases.

Miscellaneous forces under the direct command of the General Staff include the 5th Special Forces Regiment. The US State Department in reported:.

The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens; however, there were problems in some areas. The most significant human rights issues included incidents of interference with privacy; corruption; widespread discrimination against Roma minority; and security force violence against ethnic and racial minorities government actions and rhetoric did little to discourage.

The government investigated reports of abuses by members of the security forces and other government institutions, although some observers questioned the thoroughness of these investigations.

Some officials engaged in corrupt practices with impunity. Two former ministers were convicted of corruption during the year.

Human rights in Slovakia are guaranteed by the Constitution of Slovakia from the year and by multiple international laws signed in Slovakia between and As for administrative division , Slovakia is subdivided into 8 krajov singular — kraj , usually translated as "region" , each of which is named after its principal city.

Regions have enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy since Their self-governing bodies are referred to as Self-governing or autonomous Regions sg.

The "kraje" are subdivided into many okresy sg. In terms of economics and unemployment rate, the western regions are richer than eastern regions.

The Slovak Republic continues exhibiting robust economic performance, with strong growth backed by a sound financial sector, low public debt and high international competitiveness drawing on large inward investment.

The country used to be dubbed the " Tatra Tiger ". Slovakia successfully transformed from a centrally planned economy to a market-driven economy.

Major privatisations are completed, the banking sector is almost completely in private hands, and foreign investment has risen.

The Slovak economy is one of the fastest growing economies in Europe and 3rd fastest in eurozone In , and with GDP growth of Slovakia adopted the Euro currency on 1 January as the 16th member of the Eurozone.

The euro in Slovakia was approved by the European commission on 7 May The Slovak koruna was revalued on 28 May to Slovakia is an attractive country for foreign investors mainly because of its low wages, low tax rates and well educated labour force.

In recent years, Slovakia has been pursuing a policy of encouraging foreign investment. In March , the Ministry of Finance announced that Slovakia's economy is developed enough to stop being an aid receiver from the World Bank.

Slovakia became an aid provider at the end of Although Slovakia's GDP comes mainly from the tertiary services sector, the industrial sector also plays an important role within its economy.

The main industry sectors are car manufacturing and electrical engineering. Since , Slovakia has been the world's largest producer of cars per capita, [92] with a total of 1.

Volkswagen 's in Bratislava models: In , Jaguar Land Rover is set to open the country's fourth automobile assembly plant in Nitra. From electrical engineering companies, Foxconn has a factory at Nitra for LCD TV manufacturing, Samsung at Galanta for computer monitors and television sets manufacturing.

Bratislava's geographical position in Central Europe has long made Bratislava a crossroads for international trade traffic. Today, Bratislava is the road, railway, waterway and airway hub.

In , Slovakia produced a total of 28 GWh of electricity while at the same time consumed 28 GWh. The slightly higher level of consumption than the capacity of production - GWh meant the country was not self-sufficient in energy sourcing.

Slovakia imported electricity mainly from the Czech Republic 9 GWh — Nuclear energy accounts for After deactivating the last of the two reactors of the V1 block in , Slovakia instantly stopped being self-dependent in energy production.

It is scheduled for decommissioning in Two new reactors are under construction in Mochovce plant.

The nuclear power production in Slovakia sometimes draws attention to Austrian green-energy activists who occasionally organise protests and block the borders between the two countries.

There are four main highways D1 to D4 and eight express ways R1 to R8. Most of them are still in the planning phase.

It is located 9 kilometres 5. It serves civil and governmental, scheduled and unscheduled domestic and international flights.

The current runways support the landing of all common types of aircraft currently used. The Port of Bratislava is one of the two international river ports in Slovakia.

Slovakia features natural landscapes, mountains, caves , medieval castles and towns, folk architecture, spas and ski resorts.

More than 5,4 million tourists visited Slovakia in , and the most attractive destinations are the capital of Bratislava and the High Tatras.

Slovakia contains many castles, most of which are in ruins. Slovakia's position in Europe and the country's past part of the multicultural Kingdom of Hungary , the Habsburg monarchy and Czechoslovakia made many cities and towns similar to the cities in the Czech Republic such as Prague , Austria such as Salzburg or Hungary such as Budapest.

A historical center with at least one square has been preserved in many towns. Historical centers have been going through restoration in recent years.

Historical churches can be found in virtually every village and town in Slovakia. The Basilica of St. Martin's Concathedral in Bratislava served as the coronation church for the Kingdom of Hungary.

The oldest sacral buildings in Slovakia stem from the Great Moravian period in the 9th century. Very precious structures are the complete wooden churches of northern and northern-eastern Slovakia.

Most were built from the 15th century onwards by Catholics , Lutherans and members of eastern-rite churches. Dielo shop chain sells works of Slovak artists and craftsmen.

These shops are mostly found in towns and cities. Prices of imported products are generally the same as in the neighbouring countries, whereas prices of local products and services, especially food, are usually lower.

The Slovak Academy of Sciences has been the most important scientific and research institution in the country since Slovaks have made notable scientific and technical contributions during the history.

The list of important scientists and their inventions include:. Slovakia is currently in the negotiation process of becoming a member of the European Space Agency.

Observer status was granted in , when Slovakia signed the General Agreement on Cooperation [] in which information about ongoing education programmes was shared and Slovakia was invited to various negotiations of the ESA.

Slovak research and development organizations can apply for funding of projects regarding space technologies advancement. Slovakia will be obliged to set state budget inclusive ESA funding.

According to the census, [] the majority of the inhabitants of Slovakia are Slovaks Hungarians are the largest ethnic minority 8.

In Slovakia was estimated to have a total fertility rate of 1. The largest waves of Slovak emigration occurred in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

The official language is Slovak , a member of the Slavic language family. Hungarian is widely spoken in the southern regions, and Rusyn is used in some parts of the Northeast.

Slovakia is ranked among the top EU countries regarding the knowledge of foreign languages. The best known foreign language in Slovakia is Czech.

Eurostat report also shows that The deaf community uses the Slovak Sign Language. The Slovak constitution guarantees freedom of religion.

After further reductions due to postwar immigration and assimilation, only about 2, Jews remain today 0. In , Slovak parliament passed a new bill that will obstruct Islam and other religious organisations from becoming state-recognised religion by doubling the minimum followers threshold from 25, to 50, In , there were an estimated 5, Muslims in Slovakia representing less than 0.

Education in Slovakia is compulsory from age 6 to The education system consists of elementary school which is divided into two parts, the first grade age 6—10 and the second grade age 10—15 which is finished by taking nationwide testing called Monitor, from Slovak language and math.

Parents may apply for social assistance for a child that is studying on an elementary school or a high-school. If approved, the state provides basic study necessities for the child.

Schools provide books to all their students with usual exceptions of books for studying a foreign language and books which require taking notes in them, which are mostly present at the first grade of elementary school.

After finishing elementary school, students are obliged to take one year in high school. They are able to pick from Gymnasium, which is seen as the highest level of high-school education and usually considered as a preparatory school for attending a university, although anyone can apply to any university.

Besides Gymnasiums, Slovakia has specialised high schools with bacalaureat and specialised highschools without bacalaureat.

Schools with bacalaureat take 5 years to complete while the ones without usually take less. Gymnasiums and many other high schools require passing an entry exam, consider previous study results or perform a combination of both before accepting a new student.

A student may apply to two high schools at once. If student fails to get accepted in any high school, the student can submit an appeal or seek a third high school with an empty slot for one more student outside of the standard application process.

Parents and students prefer to avoid this uncertainty and tend to choose at least one high school with a high chance of acceptance. Most high-schools are finished by passing a matura exam, which consists of Slovak language and literature, one foreign language and one specialised subject.

If school offered multiple specializations or taught multiple foreign languages, student may choose which subject he or she wants to do the matura exam in.

If student wants and the school allows it, it's possible to do matura exam in more than three subjects. After finishing a high school, students can go to university and are highly encouraged to do so.

Slovakia has a wide range of universities. The biggest university is Comenius University , established in Although it's not the first university ever established on Slovak territory, it's the oldest university that is still running.

Most universities in Slovakia are public funded, where anyone can apply. Every citizen has a right for free education on public schools.

If student has to repeat a year or attends a second school after obtaining a degree, or is older than 26 years and attending Bachelor's or Master's courses or is older than 30 years and attending Doctorate's courses, student has to pay the expenses.

Students of Doctorate's courses receive a scholarship. Students of Bachelor's and of Master's courses can apply for a scholarship depending on their study performance.

The limit for applying for performance scholarship is set individually by each university. Slovakia has several privately funded universities, however public universities consistently score better in the ranking than their private counterparts.

Universities have different criteria for accepting students. Anyone can apply to any number of universities. The student may apply for a social discount for the application fee.

Several universities, including some the best ranking in Slovakia, accept all applicants and perform a screening process during the study, which results in a higher dropout rate among the students compared to universities that require passing an entry exam.

Other methods of acceptance may include weighting past study results from high school, passing an entry test or a combination of both. Folk tradition has rooted strongly in Slovakia and is reflected in literature, music, dance and architecture.

The legend says he was taking from the rich and giving to the poor. Visual art in Slovakia is represented through painting , drawing , printmaking , illustration , arts and crafts , sculpture , photography or conceptual art.

The supreme and central gallery institution displaying Slovak art nowadays is the Slovak National Gallery , [] established in With its height of The 19th century in Slovakia was a turbulent period of time when Slovaks began experiencing their national revival in the kingdom of Austria-Hungary.

Romanticism of Jozef B. The inspiration of their work stems mainly from the lives of everyday people in Slovak rurals which they admired and idealised.

Slovak graphic art experienced its peak during the 20th century. For a list of notable Slovak writers and poets, see List of Slovak authors.

Medieval literature , in the period from the 11th to the 15th centuries, was written in Latin , Czech and Slovakised Czech. Lyric prayers, songs and formulas was still controlled by the Church, while epic was concentrated on legends.

Authors from this period include Johannes de Thurocz , author of the Chronica Hungarorum and Maurus, both of them Hungarians. There were two leading persons who codified the Slovak language.

It was the codification of the first ever literary language of Slovaks. By the end of the s, radios were common household items, though only state stations were legal.

Slovak popular music began as a mix of bossa nova , cool jazz , and rock, with propagandistic lyrics.

Due to Czechoslovak isolation, the domestic market was active and many original bands evolved. Slovakia had a very strong pop culture during the s and s.

This movement brought many original bands with their own unique interpretations of modern music. The quality of socialist music was very high.

After the Velvet Revolution and the declaration of the Slovak state, domestic music dramatically diversified as free enterprise encouraged the formation of new bands and the development of new genres of music.

Soon, however, major labels brought pop music to Slovakia and drove many of the small companies out of business. During the s, American grunge and alternative rock , and Britpop have a wide following, as well as a newfound enthusiasm for musicals.

Peter Lipa born is a well-known Slovak singer, composer and promoter of modern jazz. He is one of the main organisers of the " Bratislava Jazz Days " festival, which takes place in the capital city at the end of October each year since It is the biggest jazz venue in Slovakia.

Martin Valihora , having been awarded a scholarship on the Berklee College of Music in Boston, [] he established himself as a part of the New York's jazz scene.

He has been playing with the world's famous Japanese jazz pianist Hiromi Uehara. Traditional Slovak cuisine is based mainly on pork meat, poultry chicken is the most widely eaten, followed by duck , goose , and turkey , flour , potatoes , cabbage , and milk products.

It is relatively closely related to Hungarian , Czech and Austrian cuisine. On the east it is also influenced by Ukrainian and Polish cuisine.

In comparison with other European countries, "game meat" is more accessible in Slovakia due to vast resources of forest and because hunting is relatively popular.

Lamb and goat are eaten but are not widely popular. Bryndza is a salty cheese made of a sheep milk, characterised by a strong taste and aroma. A typical soup is a sauerkraut soup "kapustnica".

A blood sausage called "krvavnica", made from any and all parts of a butchered pig is also a specific Slovak meal. Wine is enjoyed throughout Slovakia.

Slovak wine comes predominantly from the southern areas along the Danube and its tributaries; the northern half of the country is too cold and mountainous to grow grapevines.

Sport activities are practised widely in Slovakia, many of them on a professional level. Ice hockey and football have traditionally been regarded as the most popular sports in Slovakia.

Among the popular are also tennis , handball , basketball , volleyball , whitewater slalom or athletics. One of the most popular team sports in Slovakia is ice hockey.

Slovakia became the member of IIHF on 2 February [] and ever since has won 4 medals in Ice Hockey World Championships , consisting of 1 gold, 2 silver and 1 bronze medal.

Slovak national hockey team made five appearances in the Olympic games too, ended up 4th in the Winter Olympics in Vancouver.

Prior to , Slovak team HC Slovan Bratislava joined the Kontinental Hockey League , considered the strongest hockey league in Europe, and the second-best in the world.

Association football is the most popular sport in Slovakia, with over , registered players. Since , Slovak national football team has qualified only once to the FIFA World Cup in , in which they proceeded into the Last 16, where they were defeated by Netherlands.

The most notable result was the 3—2 victory over Italy. They also remain the only Slovak club that has won a match at the group stage.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 10 November For other political states, see Slovak Republic disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Slovenia , Slavonia , or Moravian Slovakia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. Slovak koruna before Shared code 42 with Czech Republic until Geomorphological division of Slovakia.

List of national parks of Slovakia. List of caves in Slovakia. List of rivers of Slovakia. Endemic Plant Species in Slovakia.

Politics of Slovakia and Law of Slovakia.

Find more about Slovakia at Wikipedia's sister projects. Das Gebiet der heutigen Slowakei Beste Spielothek in Plotzen finden bereits vor der letzten Eiszeit von Menschen besiedelt. Autumn in Slovakia starts on 23 September and is mostly characterised by wet weather and wind, although the first weeks can be very warm and sunny. Die Luftstreitkräfte verfügen über 24 Kampfflugzeuge. Es gibt fünf internationale Flughäfen in der Slowakei. Cambridge University Press,S. Zur deutschen Übersetzung der slowakischen Estoril sol casino vgl. Play Multi Wheel Roulette Online at Casino.com Indiaonline auf: A Decade of Independence, — Inand with Grand casino st tropez growth of Weakened by an internal conflict as well as by constant warfare with Hsv werder livestream FranciaGreat Moravia lost most of its peripheral territories. The slightly higher level of consumption than the capacity of production - GWh meant the country was not self-sufficient in energy sourcing.

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Jeder Kraj verfügt über eine Landeshauptstadt und einen Landesvorsitzenden, der alle vier Jahre gewählt wird. Im Jahr trat die Slowakei dem Schengen-Abkommen bei, am 1. Während sich bei den Slowenen die männliche Originalform Sloven ec bis heute erhalten hat, kam es bei den Slowaken im Jahrhundert , später befand sich in der Slowakei eines der Zentren des frühmittelalterlichen Mährerreiches. Aus dieser Gruppierung entstand die Slowakische Nationalpartei. Grossen Anteil an beiden Treffern hatte Bertschy, der jeweils den Assist gab.

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Die Awaren wurden in diesem Krieg vernichtend geschlagen und verschwanden Anfang des 9. Die Regierung hat bereits grünes Licht gegeben. Interne Konflikte und Abspaltungen führten zur Gründung neuer Parteien. Die slowakische Justiz begegnet den Problemen der allgegenwärtigen Korruption und politischen Instrumentalisierung in den letzten Jahren selbstbewusst und mit einigen Erfolgen. Rules of Procedure in der Fassung vom 1. Zur ersten Kategorie gehören neun Nationalparks. Upgrade your browser today to experience this site better. Einzelheiten sind in den Nutzungsbedingungen beschrieben. März , online auf: Die Slowakei ist laut der Verfassung von eine Republik , die eine parlamentarische Demokratie darstellt. Mit dieser Präambel wird das slowakische Volk als Staatsvolk definiert. Er teilt seine Macht mit dem Parlament. Mai Tag der Arbeit , der 8. Zu ihnen gehören Liebeslieder und Balladen, die von sozialen Themen handeln. Die Awaren siedelten sich im heutigen Ungarn nach an. Ministerpräsident Fico kandidierte für das Regierungslager bei der Präsidentschaftswahl in der Slowakei , unterlag aber in der Stichwahl dem ehemaligen Unternehmer und Philanthropen Andrej Kiska , der von der Opposition unterstützt wurde. Die neoliberale Wirtschaftspolitik der Ära Dzurinda wurde von der Regierung Fico beendet und Arbeiterrechte ausgebaut, die Flat Tax aber vorerst beibehalten. März , online auf: Nach kam vom Norden auch die erste Hauptwelle der Slawen in die Nordslowakei — die Vorfahren des heutigen Staatsvolkes der Slowakei. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Die Slowakei besteht in ihrer Energiepolitik am Festhalten an der Atomkraft, Österreich hingegen auf entsprechende Sicherheitsstandards.

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